Modelling of Biomechanical Systems

Prof. Dr. Mirela Toth-Tascau, Dr. Mircea Dreucean

Generally, Biomedical Engineering deals with human body modelling and biomechanics, static/dynamic structural analysis, biomaterials, modelling of biological systems, tissues engineering, biosensors, medical informatics, medical electronics, medical imaging investigations, design and manufacturing of medical devices.

Biomechanics combines the field of mechanical engineering with the fields of biology, physiology, and medicine. In biomechanics, the principles of mechanics are applied to the modelling, conception, design, development, and analysis of medical devices and systems in biology and medicine. The modelling of biomechanical systems contributes to the development of medical diagnosis and treatment procedures.

The main purpose of the Modelling of Biomechanical Systems course is to develop the theoretical basics of the biomechanical studies in front of the engineers and researches who work in the Biomedical Engineering field.

Kinematic modelling of biomechanical systems deals with bones, joints, and their motions. One of the most used conventions for geometric and kinematic modelling is Denavit-Hartenberg convention. Based on this convention, human limbs are modelled.

Static modeling of biomechanical systems deals with equilibrium of biomechanical systems (bones, muscles, ligaments and connecting joints). Based on the principles of mechanics, human limbs equilibrium is studied.

Dynamic modelling deals with the laws of motion of material bodies subjected to the action of a force system. The fundamental characteristics and general theorems are presented and applied in order to study the human locomotion.

The implants can be used as replacement of damaged or diseased part of the anatomy (e.g. total joint replacement), to aid in healing of tissue (e.g. fracture plate) or to correct deformity (e.g. a plate used after osteotomy). Several implants for long bones and head skeleton are presented. Also, basic knowledge of biomaterials used for implants manufacturing is essential.

Finite Element Method is considered as the dominating and leading numerical technique in research and engineering practice in the mechanics of solids and structures. Also, FEM represents one of the most important and interesting approach in Tissue Engineering. Thus, the FEM part of the course consists of basics of FEM theory, general ANSYS specific capabilities and steps to solving any problem in order to predict the strain and stress fields within a solid body (a certain tissue) subjected to external forces, and several examples using ANSYS program.

Data Integrity and Encryption

Dipl.-Ing. Olaf Fischer, Dipl.-Ing. Udo Willers

Today's data communication is widely characterized by the use of insecure public networks. To protect the confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of transferred messages, methods of encryption, signing, etc. have to be used.

The objective of this course is the procurement of basic knowledge in the field of data encryption and data integrity especially in network communications.

Course Outline:
We will give a short introduction to the protocols used in internet communications (TCP/IP) and their basic principles and operation. We will analyze the security aspects of these protocols practically with a network analyzer.

In the second part we discuss symmetric and asymmetric encryption methods and their application in data communication. Furthermore we will present tools to use modern asymmetric encryption methods in everyday internet communication.

DAY COURSE SYLLABUS
1st day Introduction to TCP/IP; application protocols; network analysis; security aspects
2nd day Encryption basics; symmetric and asymmetric methods; signing; tools (PGP,GnuPG)

Introduction to Artificial Organs

Ass.Prof. Mustafa Koçakulak, PhD.

The replacement or augmentation of failing organs with artificial devices has been an important task in health care for few decades. Such devices like dialysis to replace failing kidneys, mechanical heart valves to replace diseased human valves, heart assist devices for a weakened human heart are common in clinical practice. Each of these artificial organ systems will be described in detail in separate sections of this lecture. This course will provide the students an understanding of the art and science involved with engineering a replacement for the native heart, lung, kidney and blood vessels. A short tutorial for each module will include basic cardiac, vascular, renal and pulmonary physiology; biomaterials used for building artificial organs undergraduate physics, basic fluid mechanics; and mass transfer. Complimentary modules will be presented for each organ system. Each organ system module will begin with a detailed presentation of the anatomy and physiology of the organ system followed by an overview of the disease processes that limit their function. Next the basic design criteria and the physical laws that need to be taken into consideration for a suitable replacement or temporary assist device will be discussed. Class will be supported with multimedia animations and videos from operations such as open heart surgery. We will discuss the practical considerations in artificial organ design and will debate on topics related to biocompatibility challenges, complications and limitations of existing technologies, market shares, regulatory issues and cost related problems.

Course Outline:
Cardiac organ replacement, Vascular organ replacement, Pulmonary organ replacement, Renal system replacement.

Product Development of Biomedical Applications

Tomi Ropanen, Toni Nisula

Themes of the course:

  • Introduction to product development process / methodology

  • Introduction to efficient product development tools

  • Case studies of biomechanical applications

    • Prostheses and Orthoses
    • Technical aids for disabled persons
    • Trauma implants
    • Spinal implants
       
  • Product and design requirements for biomechanical applications

  • Learning by doing -> product development work in teams.

Goal of the course is to introduce students to product development of biomechanical applications by showing participants several real-life product case-studies and letting the students perform product development tasks in teams. Teachers of the course are professionals in product development and development of biomechanical applications.

Medical Imaging Eprocessing

Dr. Szabolcs Sergyán

Medical devices for image acquisition:

  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound
  • Computer tomography
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Nuclear / radioactive imaging


Image processing fundamentals and object recognition:

  • Image representation
  • Spatial filtering
  • Grayscale and colour images
  • Morphological image processing
  • Image segmentation
  • Colour object recognition


The course has theoretical as well as practical parts.

Fibre Optics & Laser Application in Medicine

Prof. Dr. Elio Meneses-Pacheco

Since the first report on laser radiation by Maiman (1960), many potential fields for its application have been investigated. Among these, medical laser surgery certainly belongs to the most significant advances of our present century. Actually various kinds of lasers have already become irreplaceable tools of modern medicine.

One of the problems in surgery is that of access: often overlying tissue must be cut simply to gain access to the target organ. On the other side fiber optics has enabled the development of endoscopes, which allow access to most sites within the body, leading to the development of minimally invasive therapy.

Course contents:

  • Introduction to lasers and fiber optics
  • Overview of laser-tissue interactions
  • Application of laser in the refractive surgery

International Standards for Medical Devices

Jan van Biervliet

In this ever changing world safety and security is a major issue. And this issue is changing everyday as our knowledge is growing. In these sessions European Directives (90/385/EEC, 93/42/EEC, 98/79/EC) concerning medical apparatus, standards and the ALARA (as low as reasonably accepted) and ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) principle will be discussed. There will be an overview of how directives and standards are related while the main emphasis will be put on the IEC 60601-1, ed3 (Medical electrical equipment-Part 1: General requirements for basic safety and essential performance) and how it differs from earlier editions. The “new” idea of risk management (ISO 14971), which has become mandatory, will also be discussed.

Biomedical Applications of Microcontrollers

Mehmet Yüksekkaya

Today microcontrollers have been used in many electronic machines; as well they became an integral part of biomedical devices. This course discusses the programming model and basic features of a microcontroller and the application of microcontrollers to biomedical instrumentation. Lectures and laboratory experiments cover the basic principles of hardware and software design for a microcontroller based system and interfacing biomedical sensors to microcontrollers are emphasized.

Course Outline:
Overview of PIC microcontroller, Basic MikroC programming for PIC microcontroller, Interface of sensors and I/O devices to microcontroller chips, Design of microcontroller systems for medical use such as design of a heart beat monitor and/or a digital thermometer.

DAY COURSE SYLLABUS
1st dayIntroduction to microcontrollers and embedded design.
2nd dayPIC microcontrollers and MikroC programming language.
3rd dayProgramming PIC microcontrollers and designing simple microcontroller applications.
4th dayAnalog to digital conversion using microcontrollers and digital thermometer application.

Biomechanics + Tissue Engineering

Dr. Jan-Herman Kuiper

What is biomechanics and tissue engineering?
Many tissues and organs in the body have either a direct load-bearing function, or fulfil their functions while under considerable mechanical loads. Biomechanics is the science of investigating the effects of forces on biological tissues, organs and systems. It thus covers a wide field, ranging from the application of statics and dynamics to analyse forces and moments in the body, to the application of mechanics of materials to analyse the mechanical behaviour of cells, tissues and organs in the body.

Biomechanics helps to understand why tissues, organs and systems have the structure and shape they have, and provides basic knowledge for designing medical devices. Over the last years, biomechanics has become more relevant since many research groups throughout the world try to help patients using “tissue engineering”. Tissue engineering is the attempt to “engineer” tissue such as bone in the laboratory; this tissue can then be used to treat patients who have lost bone.

What will I do during the four days?
Mornings of day 1-3 (lectures)

  • Introduction: what is the role of biomechanics in orthopaedics?
  • What are the mechanical properties of bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments?
  • How do these properties relate to the structure and function of these tissues?
  • What is the effect of mechanical loading on the structure and mechanical properties of biological tissues?
  • Can we “engineer” new bone and cartilage, instead of using artificial bones and joints?


Afternoons of day 1-3 (practical)

In groups of about four persons, you will design a testing machine, build it, and use it to compare the quality of various orthopaedic bone screws.

Day 4
In the morning, there is time to write a report on the practical. In the afternoon, there will be a multiple choice exam. You can bring all your handouts and notes to the exam.

What do I need to know in advance?
The course is designed to be interesting for mechanical engineering students as well as for students in other engineering disciplines. Simply bring your brain and enthusiasm!

Transducers and Related Electronics in Biomedical Engineering

Ass.Prof. Dr. I. Cengiz Koçum

Sensors and transducers are the eyes and ears of modern measurement instrumentation and control system. Many types of machines and also medical instruments depend on transducers and sensors to provide input data about the environment. Sensors represent both one of the oldest segments of the electronic industry and one of the most modern. Widely used in both analog and digital instrumentation systems, sensors provide the interface between electronic circuits and “real world” where things happen.

The goal of this course is to provide a representative overview of sensors, how they work, how they are applied and what basic electronic circuits are needed to support them.

Course Outline:
Sensor technologies, Basic transducer principles, Thermo resistive and thermoelectric transducers, Electrets and capacitive transducers, Piezoelectric, pyroelectric and piezo resistive effects, Hall effect and magnetic transducers, Radiation based transducers, Electrochemical transducers, related electronics and biomedical applications.

DAYCOURSE SYLLABUS
1st day  Transducer, sensor and signal processing
Amplifier basics and grounding
2nd dayResistive, capacitive and inductive transducers
Temperature sensors
3rd dayTemperature sensors
Piezoelectric, pyroelectric, Hall effect and some applications
4th dayElectrochemical sensors
Some selected application examples

User Centered Design

ir. Reino Veenstra

During this course we will go into the user’s side of design, we will explore who and what the ‘bleep’ we, designers, are working for.

Now, we realize that anything can be made by now, and if not technologically doable today, it will be tomorrow. This makes that the ‘consumer’ industry in refocusing from technology driven design towards user-centered design. Yes, sustainability is also a buzzword these days, but think about it, does sustainable only mean degradable or reusable? No, of course not! If things need to be sustainable it means also that these products are used well and to the satisfaction of the customer / user.

The course will contain these four topics:

  • Usage scenario / LCA writing – a workshop in which the use and usage of these simple yet powerful tools will be explored through different stages of the design process.

  • Beyond usability; what the user really wants, but has not even thought of yet – lecture and workshop in which you will try to think the thoughts of your targeted user.

  • Criteria specification with anthropometric data – an interactive lecture that aims to show how the scenario serves to complete the list of criteria and how anthropometric data can be used to make certain criteria operational / of use to designers.

  • Collages and mood boards – lecture on the use and the do’s and don’ts, plus a workshop for the practice and to show you that an image can say more than many words. (In case making Collages is known to most of the group, we will alter plan and go for an inspiring session of Creative Problem Solving)

Hemodynamic Modelling

Dr. Liam Morris

Hemodynamics is considered with the analysis of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. Hemodynamic factors are believed to be responsible for the localisation of vascular diseases in areas of complex flow regions such as curved vessels, branching and bifurcations so hence the importance of hemodynamic modelling in biomedical engineering. This course will comprise of the following elements:

  • Modelling of fluid flow, the laws of fluid mechanics – the control volume method and the differential approach. Analytical solutions to the Navier Strokes equations for steady and pulsatile (unsteady) flow in rigid and compliant tubing.
  • Mechanical events in a cardiac cycle and the correlation with the electrical events of the heart. This includes the relationship between the cardiac cycle, the physiological pulse waveform in the arterial system and the influence of arterial flexibility, resistance and ageing on the pulse waveform.
  • Blood rheology – the composition of blood. The Newtonian and non-Newtonian nature of blood.
  • Laminar to turbulent transition for steady and unsteady flows.
  • Arterial properties - the composition and the various mathematical descriptions.
  • General description of the cardiovascular system in terms of size, shape and composition and the influence hemodyanamics has on typical diseases of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, aneurysms, heart attacks etc.

Product Development of Biomedical Applications

Tomi Ropanen, Heikki Hasari

Themes of the course:

  • Introduction to product development process / methodology
  • Introduction to efficient product development tools
  • Case studies of biomechanical applications
  • Product and design requirements for biomechanical applications
  • Learning by doing -> product development work in teams.

Goal of the course is to introduce students to product development of biomechanical applications by showing participants several real-life product case-studies and letting the students perform product development tasks in teams. Teachers of the course are professionals in product development and development of biomechanical applications.

Computer Aided Biomedical Engineering

Gerard O’Donnell

The objective of this course is to combine the power of an advanced solid modelling package such as Pro-Engineer and the analytical capability of the Finite Element Method (FEM). The Finite Element Method is the accepted method for designing the strength and rigidity of any mechanical component in the 21st century. This course will expose its students to the current procedures used by practicing engineers and will pay particular attention to the development of new medical devices. The course will be composed of daily 2-hour lecture session followed by a 3-hour computer laboratory session. In the computer laboratory, students will be introduced to the general-purpose finite element package ANSYS.

Topics to be covered in the lectures are:
Background and application of FEM. Examples of the application of finite element analysis to component design. Simple one-dimensional elements and shape functions. Two-dimensional elasticity – plane stress and plane strain formulations. Linear shapes functions for 2-dimensions. Axisymmetric element formulation.

Topics to be covered in the ANSYS practical are:
Using the IGES file format to import solid models into FEA packages. Defining linear elastic material properties. Applying boundary conditions and loading. Reviewing results in tabular, graphical and animated format. Defining simple geometries using keypoints, lines, areas and volumes.

Medical Imaging e-processing

Prof. Dr. Thomas Anna, Dr. Szabolcs Sergyán

Medical devices for image acquisition:

  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound
  • Computer tomography
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Nuclear / radioactive imaging


Image processing fundamentals and object recognition:

  • Image representation
  • Spatial filtering
  • Grayscale and colour images
  • Morphological image processing
  • Image segmentation
  • Colour object recognition


The course has theoretical as well as practical parts.

Microfluidic Devices

Prof. Dr. Heidi Lenz-Strauch, Prof. Dr. Oliver Geschke

The application of microtechnology to chemistry and biology – summarized in the name “lab-on-a-chip” – is a rapidly increasing field of activity with many applications in biomedical engineering. In this course the following topics are covered:

  • Micro fluidics
  • Polymer micromachining
  • Glass micromachining
  • Characterization of microstructures.

In the practical part of the course the students design simple micro fluidic structures, build them by different manufacturing methods, characterize the structures and test them.

Biomaterial Science:
Fundamentals & Nanotechnological Applications

Ass.Prof. Dilek ÇökelIler

During the last century, interest in biomaterials has grown from mere curiosity to routine clinical use, saving lives and improving the quality of life for millions of people. Today, biomaterials and medical devices are a $100 billion industry. This course will cover many fundamental areas such as:

  • An overview of the biomaterials field (definitions, etc.),
  • The current status of the biomaterials field,
  • The properties of biomaterials that make them useful in medical (and clinical) applications,
  • Introduction to the major classes of biomedical materials: ceramics, metals, and polymers. Their structure, properties, and fabrication connected to biological applications, from implants to tissue engineered devices.
  • New trends and future prospects.


Course Outline
:
Material science and relation between medicine. Properties of polymeric, metallic and ceramic biomaterials. Natural biological materials. Artificial biologic materials. Applications of material sciences in biomedical engineering. Mechanics, corrosive and surface properties, tissue reactions of biomaterials. Medical applications of researches in material sciences. Synthesis of nanomaterials, nanoparticules and biomedical applications. Nanostructured coatings.

DAYCOURSE SYLLABUS
1st day Introduction to the Material Science & Engineering Biomaterial Science
Bulk properties - chemical bonds - surface energy
Classifications & advanced biomaterials
2nd dayPolymeric, metallic & ceramic biomaterials
3rd dayComposite biomaterials performance of biomaterials;
Mechanical and biological tests
4th dayIntroduction to the nanotechnology
Fundamentals of synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials
Nanostructured coatings; Plasma polymerisation technique nanosensors; NEMS and MEMS
Carbon nanotubes

Biomaterial Science:
Fundamentals & Nanotechnological Applications

Ass.Prof. Dilek Çökellier

During the last century, interest in biomaterials has grown from mere curiosity to routine clinical use, saving lives and improving the quality of life for millions of people. Today, biomaterials and medical devices are a $100 billion industry. This course will cover many fundamental areas such as:

  • An overview of the biomaterials field (definitions, etc.),
  • The current status of the biomaterials field,
  • The properties of biomaterials that make them useful in medical (and clinical) applications,
  • Introduction to the major classes of biomedical materials: ceramics, metals, and polymers. Their structure, properties, and fabrication connected to biological applications, from implants to tissue engineered devices.
  • New trends and future prospects.


Course Outline
:
Material science and relation between medicine. Properties of polymeric, metallic and ceramic biomaterials. Natural biological materials. Artificial biologic materials. Applications of material sciences in biomedical engineering. Mechanics, corrosive and surface properties, tissue reactions of biomaterials. Medical applications of researches in material sciences. Synthesis of nanomaterials, nanoparticules and biomedical applications. Nanostructured coatings.

DATECOURSE SYLLABUS
10.09. Introduction to the Material Science & Engineering Biomaterial Science
Bulk properties - chemical bonds - surface energy
Classifications & advanced biomaterials
11.09.Polymeric, metallic & ceramic biomaterials
17.09.Composite biomaterials performance of biomaterials;
Mechanical and biological tests
18.09.Introduction to the nanotechnology
Fundamentals of synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials
Nanostructured coatings; Plasma polymerisation technique nanosensors; NEMS and MEMS
Carbon nanotubes

Computational Biomechanics and 3D Anatomical Models

Elsa Fonseca

Topics to be covered during the module:

  • 3D models construction
  • non-invasive high resolution CT data
  • the rapid prototyping applied to 3D models construction
  • the computational modelling of human femur and knee
  • the constitutive and mathematical equations
  • the modelling of bones tissues
  • the material properties of cortical and trabecular bone
  • the loads and boundary conditions
  • modelling of human femur and knee with Ansys finite element program using IGS format

During practical sessions a study case will be produced by students using Ansys program.

Cognitive Ergonomics

Richard Vos, Sonja de Graaf

The two days programme ‘Cognitive Ergonomics’ will focus on product development from an interaction design perspective in which insights from psychology and the domain of user interfaces will be applied. Students will work in project teams towards a solution to a real world problem. A theoretic framework will be offered and several user-centred methods and techniques from the field interaction design will be applied.

Richard Vos has a background in experimental / cognitive psychology. Sonja de Graaf is a Human Technology engineer.