Prosthesis and Tissue

Dr. Jan-Herman Kuiper

What is biomechanics and tissue engineering?
Many tissues and organs in the body have either a direct load-bearing function, or fulfil their functions while under considerable mechanical loads. Biomechanics is the science of investigating the effects of forces on biological tissues, organs and systems. It thus covers a wide field, ranging from the application of statics and dynamics to analyse forces and moments in the body, to the application of mechanics of materials to analyse the mechanical behaviour of cells, tissues and organs in the body.

Biomechanics helps to understand why tissues, organs and systems have the structure and shape they have, and provides basic knowledge for designing medical devices. Over the last years, biomechanics has become more relevant since many research groups throughout the world try to help patients using “tissue engineering”. Tissue engineering is the attempt to “engineer” tissue such as bone in the laboratory; this tissue can then be used to treat patients who have lost bone.

What will I do during the four days?
Mornings of day 1-3 (lectures)

  • Introduction: what is the role of biomechanics in orthopaedics?
  • What are the mechanical properties of bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments?
  • How do these properties relate to the structure and function of these tissues?
  • What is the effect of mechanical loading on the structure and mechanical properties of biological tissues?
  • Can we “engineer” new bone and cartilage, instead of using artificial bones and joints?

Afternoons of day 1-3 (practical)
In groups of about four persons, you will design a testing machine, build it, and use it to compare the quality of various orthopaedic bone screws.

Day 4
In the morning, there is time to write a report on the practical. In the afternoon, there will be a multiple choice exam. You can bring all your handouts and notes to the exam.

What do I need to know in advance?
The course is designed to be interesting for mechanical engineering students as well as for students in other engineering disciplines. Simply bring your brain and enthusiasm!

Medical Imaging

Prof. Dr. Thomas Anna, Dr. Szabolcs Sergyán

How images are created:

  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound
  • Computer tomography
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Nuclear / radioactive imaging

Image processing fundamentals and object recognition:

  • Image representation
  • Spatial filtering
  • Grayscale and colour images
  • Morphological image processing
  • Image segmentation
  • Colour object recognition

The course has theoretical as well as pratical parts.

Medical 3D-Reconstruction

Prof. Dr. Cornelia Kober

The course covers the entire workflow from radiological data sets to a valuable 3D-model. Part I of the course is dedicated to the introduction of the basic techniques, as handling of radiological data sets (CT, MRI), image segmentation, and reconstruction of 3D-surfaces. Within Part II, real CT data are to be processed. Up to now, the problem of general image segmentation is unsolved. Further, 3D-reconstruction is known to be often highly user dependent. Therefore, at the end of the course, careful evaluation of the results by the participants is planned.

Part I: Introduction of Basic Techniques

  • Introduction to the visualization platform Amira 4.0
  • Handling of radiological datasets as file import etc.
  • Simple 3D data analysis
  • Interactive segmentation of 3D images
  • Surface reconstruction from 3D images

Part II: 3D-Reconstruction and Evaluation

  • Processing of real CT data
  • Comparison and evaluation of the results

All image processing, visualization, and reconstruction steps will be performed using the visualization platform AmiraTM 4.x, Mercury Computer Systems, Berlin.

Digital Signal Processing for Biomedical Engineering

M.C. van Westen

Many signals can be measured with sensors that will convert a physical quantity to an electric signal. In the past this analogue signal was transferred to voltmeters, pen writers and oscilloscopes. Today the analogue signal will be converted to a digital signal using analogue to digital converters (ADC’ss). Then a computer can be used to store the signal on a hard disk and/or process this digital signal.

In this two day course the student will get an introduction to digital signal processing. At the end of the second day the student will be able to design, construct and apply finite impulse response filters (IIR filters) to remove unwanted noise from a heartbeat signal.

Subjects in this course are:

  • Analogue-digital conversion
  • Sampling
  • Aliasing
  • Linear Time Invariant Systems
  • Fourier Transforms
  • Z-transforms
  • Infinite Impulse Response Filters
  • Notch Filters

Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

Prof. Dr. Heidi Lenz-Strauch, Prof. Dr. Oliver Geschke

The application of microtechnology to chemistry and biology – summarized in the name “lab-on-a-chip” – is a rapidly increasing field of activity with many applications in biomedical engineering. In this course the following topics are covered:

  • Micro fluidics
  • Polymer micromachining
  • Glass micromachining
  • Characterization of microstructures

In the practical part of the course the students design simple micro fluidic structures, build them by different manufacturing methods, characterize the structures and test them.

Cultural Design Aspects

ir. Marten Wiersma

To design a new product there are a lot of possible methods and activities.

In this course we will show you the different aspects of the design process. In general the design process is: think and find the best solution for a need. The thinking can be done in different ways. This difference is related to the complexity of the design process.

A designer has to fulfil a lot of different requirements, for example:

  • financial cost
  • the function
  • material requirements
  • production methods
  • environment
  • ethics
  • culture etc.

In this course "Cultural Design Aspects" we will introduce you to a method for design related to these aspects.

The design process depends on the designing person. The designing person has his own background, based on culture and personality. Therefore we will also look at the differences between cultures and we will find out what the basic behaviour is of each person. It is important to recognise the differences between people and to their solutions for a given problem.

It is important to know what is acceptable during design. To show you what is acceptable or not, you will be introduced in ethics. The introduction consists of 3 basic principles. Each principle will be discussed. Part of it is the theory of argumentation.

After a design has been chosen, you have to check the design for its safety aspects. In this course we will introduce you a method of checking the safety of the design by "Failure Mode and Effect Analysis" (FMEA)

Of course it is important to have the best solution for a product. Therefore it is possible to check the functions in relation to the costs of that function. We will introduce you the system of Value Analysis / Value Engineering (VA/VE).

The testing of equipment is very important. When is a test valid? We will see what is important to check during the performance of a test.

Besides lectures, we will work in projects as companies in real life work in projects. So feedback is important, because it is the basic of good communication. An introduction in feedback is scheduled.

Safety & Security

Jan Van Biervliet

In this ever changing world safety and security is a major issue. And this issue is changing everyday as our knowledge is growing. In these sessions European directives (90/385/EEC, 93/42/EEC, 98/79/EC) concerning medical apparatus, standards and the ALARA (as low as reasonably accepted) and ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) principle will be discussed. There will be an overview of how directives and standards are related while the main emphasis will be put on the IEC 60601-1, ed3 (Medical electrical equipment-Part 1: General requirements for basic safety and essential performance) and how it differs from earlier editions. The “new” idea of risk management (ISO 14971), which has become mandatory, will also be discussed.

Cultural Design Aspects

ir. Marten Wiersma

To design a new product there are a lot of possible methods and activities.

In this course we will show you the different aspects of the design process. In general the design process is: think and find the best solution for a need. The thinking can be done in different ways. This difference is related to the complexity of the design process.

A designer has to fulfil a lot of different requirements, for example:

  • financial cost
  • the function
  • material requirements
  • production methods
  • environment
  • ethics
  • culture etc.

In this course "Cultural Design Aspects" we will introduce you to a method for design related to these aspects.

The design process depends on the designing person. The designing person has his own background, based on culture and personality. Therefore we will also look at the differences between cultures and we will find out what the basic behaviour is of each person. It is important to recognise the differences between people and to their solutions for a given problem.

After a design has been chosen, you have to check the design for its safety aspects. In this course we will introduce you a method of checking the safety of the design by "Failure Mode and Effect Analysis" (FMEA)

Of course it is important to have the best solution for a product. Therefore it is possible to check the functions in relation to the costs of that function. We will introduce you the system of Value Analysis / Value Engineering (VA/VE).

A good product can be maintained when necessary. This requires special activities during the design process. We will show you different solutions for different problems that occur during design. (Design for Maintenance: DfM)

Of course the product should be in accordance with the Medical Device Directive (MDD). This is one of the most important requirements during the methodical design proces. An introduction in the requirements of the MDD is scheduled.

Medical Electronics

Dr. Jan Zijlstra

Assignment:
A non-invasive blood pressure monitor will be built during this course and signal analysis is done on the computer.

This one-week course consists of lectures and workshops. The students will have an introduction on how to measure non-invasive signals from the body and how to use measuring devices like oscilloscopes and multimeters. Signals tend to be weak and disturbed by noise, so they have to be filtered and amplified. How this can be done by using operational amplifiers and filtering techniques will be part of the course. Necessary medical background about blood pressure measurement and the used electronic components is presented. Existing software will be used to analyze and interpret the recorded signals.

Human Technology in Design

ir. Manon Vos-Vlamings

At the Hanze University Groningen (the Netherlands) a new course has been designed which is called Human Technology. It is all about designing products for users by studying cases and doing research yourself!

The following subjects will be addressed in the course:

  1. How to design a product that fits the user needs?
  2. How to design a product which is usable and has the right experience?
  3. What is the process to come to the user requirements of a product?

You will learn about:

  • Executing user research (observing the user and preparing a questionnaire)
  • Cognitive and physical ergonomics
  • The Human Technology approach in designing a product

Safety & Security

Prof. Dr. Eckhard Schmittendorf

Safety is a mayor aspect in the design and application of biomedical engineering. This part of our intensive course deals with various aspects of safety including hardware, software, and regulatory requirements.

The course is built on a realistic scenario: Various medical devices are connected to the patient to acquire data. The data is then stored and transferred within the hospital information system as well as outside of the hospital using internet services.

The students will learn about specific risks as well as necessary safety and security measures.

Medical Imaging

Prof. Dr. Thomas Anna, Dr. Patrick Matthys, Dr. Szabolcs Sergyán

How images are created:

  • X-ray
  • Ultrasound
  • Computer tomography
  • Magnetic resonance
  • Nuclear / radioactive imaging

Image processing fundamentals and object recognition:

  • Image representation
  • Spatial filtering
  • Grayscale and colour images
  • Morphological image processing
  • Image segmentation
  • Colour object recognition

The course has theoretical as well as pratical parts.

Medical Electronics

ir. Marien van Westen, ir. Jan Zijlstra

A simple non-invasive blood pressure monitor will be built during this course and signal interpretation is done on the computer.

This one-week course can be divided in two parts:

In part one the student will have an introduction on how to measure non-invasive signals from the body and how to use measuring devices like oscilloscopes and multimeters. Signals tend to be weak and disturbed by noise, so they have to be filtered and amplified. How this can be done by using operational amplifiers and filtering techniques will be part of the course. Necessary medical background about blood pressure measurement is presented.

In part two we will investigate how we can use a computer to analyse signals. We will discuss analog-digital conversion and digital signal processing. The main issues in this part are sampling, finite impulse response (FIR) filters and infinite impulse response (IIR) filters.

Design Aspects

ir. Marten Wiersma

To design a new product there are a lot of possible methods and activities.

In this course we will show you the different aspects of the design process. In general the design process is: think and find the best solution for a need. The thinking can be done in different ways. This difference is related to the complexity of the design process.

A designer has to fulfil a lot of different requirements, for example:

  • financial cost
  • the function
  • material requirements
  • production methods
  • environment
  • ethics
  • culture etc.

In this course "Design Aspects" we will introduce you to a method for design related to these aspects.

The design process depends on the designing person. The designing person has his own background, based on culture and personality. Therefore we will also look at the differences between cultures and we will find out what the basic behaviour is of each person. It is important to recognise the differences between people and to their solutions for a given problem.

After a design has been chosen, you have to check the design for its safety aspects. In this course we will introduce you a method of checking the safety of the design by "Failure Mode and Effect Analysis" (FMEA)

Of course it is important to have the best solution for a product. Therefore it is possible to check the functions in relation to the costs of that function. We will introduce you the system of Value Analysis / Value Engineering (VA/VE).

A good product can be maintained when necessary. This requires special activities during the design process. We will show you different solutions for different problems that occur during design. (Design for Maintenance: DfM)

Of course the product should be in accordance with the Medical Device Directive (MDD). This is one of the most important requirements during the methodical design process. An introduction in the requirements of the MDD is scheduled.

FEM & Tissue Engineering

Prof. Dr. Mirela Toth-Tascau, Dr. Mircea Dreucean, Dr. Jan-Herman Kuiper

Generally, FEM & Tissue Engineering deals with: human body modelling and biomechanics, medical imaging investigations, static/dynamic structural analysis, design and manufacturing of implants, prosthetic devices and equipments.

FEM can be considered as the dominating and leading numerical technique in research and engineering practice in the mechanics of solids and structures. Furthermore, FEM represents one of the most important and interesting approaches in Tissue Engineering.

The main purpose of this course is to develop the theoretical basics of the FEM method in front of the engineers and researches who use ANSYS or other FEM software in their work. Thus, the FEM part of the course consists of basics of FEM theory presentation, general ANSYS specific capabilities and steps to solving any problem in order to predict the strain and stress fields within a solid body (a certain tissue) subjected to external forces, and several examples using ANSYS program.

The theoretical section is focussed on meshing technique and element attributes, specifying the material properties, specifying the boundary conditions for the problem (nature of the applied loads and constraints), specifying the initial conditions for dynamic analyses.

The examples are focussed on static structural analyses of bones and implants.

Safety & Security

Prof. Dr. Eckhard Schmittendorf, Prof. Dr. Juliane Benra,
Prof. Dr. Rainer Hinz

Safety is a mayor aspect in the design and application of biomedical technology. This part of our intensive course deals with various aspects of safety including hardware, software, and regulatory requirements.

The course is built on a realistic scenario: Various medical devices are connected to the patient to acquire data. The data is then stored and transferred within the hospital information system as well as outside of the hospital using internet services.

The students will learn about specific risks as well as necessary safety and security measures.

Safety and Regulatory Affairs

Prof. Dr. Eckhard Schmittendorf

Safety measures and their comprehensible documentation are an important part of the design process of medical devices. Therefore biomedical engineers need to know about European regulations and master basic safety techniques.

This course introduces students to the specific risks induced by the application of medical devices. The students learn how to execute a risk analysis and discuss means for risk reduction.

The course also covers the more administrative aspects of the European directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices, providing information on the disposition of the technical documentation, the application of harmonized standards, and the so called conformity assessment procedures that are required to place medical devices on the European market.

Course content:

  • Specific risks of the application of medical devices;
  • Risk analysis and means for risk reduction;
  • The European Medical Device Directive (MDD);
  • Essential requirements and the application of harmonized standards;
  • Technical documentation;
  • Conformity assessment procedures.

Recommended readings:

  • Council Directive 93/42/EEC concerning medical devices MDD (can be found on the internet).

Medical Signal Measurement

Prof. Dr. Rainer Hinz

The course introduce students to the principles underlying the electrical measurement of some of the most important physiological electrical signals used in routine critical care and provide students with a basic understanding of the nature of the electrical environment within which measurement of these signals must be made, with particular reference to electrical interference and the effect of electrodes.

Course content:

  • The origins and character of commonly used physiological parameters: ECG, EEG, EOG
  • Electrodes and the electrode/tissue interface: ionic current flow and electrolytes; electrical equivalent circuits of electrodes
  • The electrical environment in physiological measurement: common mode interference; amplifier and patient protection systems and their effect on measurement; effect of electrode imbalance.

Recommended readings:

  • Webster, John G. (edit.): "Medical Instrumentation, Application and Design"; 3rd edition 1998; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Audiology

Prof. Dr. Inga Holube

Hearing is essential for every day communication and participating in social life. This course introduces the basic concepts of the auditory system, audiological diagnosis, and rehabilitation. The students should develop a basic understanding of the problems and challenges in this small but exciting field of medical technology.

Course contents:

  • The auditory system
  • Subjective and objective diagnostic procedures
  • Hearing instrument technology
  • Evaluation and measurement procedures

Recommended readings:

  • Gelfand, Stanley: "Essentials of Audiology", Thieme
  • Dillon, Harvey: "Hearing Aids", Thieme

Orthopaedics

Prof. Dr. Mirela Toth-Tascau

The aim of this course is to introduce the students into the area of human body modelling. There will be treated: human lower limb, human upper limb and human mandible. From the kinematics model to the dynamic one, all modelling principles will be presented. Some aspects of human skeleton prosthetic devices and implants analyze by using Finite Elements Method will also be treated in order to offer to the students some ideas about numerical modelling.

Course contents:

  • Methods to modelling kinematics chains
  • Kinematics model of human upper and lower limbs by using Denavit-Hartenberg convention
  • Dynamic modelling principles convention
  • Human lower limb dynamic model during the gait cycle
  • Mandible dynamic model
  • Implants and prosthetic devices for long bones and head skeleton


Recommended readings:

  • M. Anjabi, A. White, Biomechanics in the musculoskeletal system, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2001
  • Z. Dvir, Clinical Biomechanics, Churchill Livingstone, New York, 2000
  • J. Guillet, La robotique médicale, Editions Hermès, Paris, 1998
  • J.G. Hay, The biomechanics of sports techniques, Prentice Hall, New York, 1994
  • G. Sumner-Smith, Bone in clinical orthopedics, Thieme, Stuttgart-New York, 2002

Medical Signal Measurement

Prof. Dr. Rainer Hinz, Prof. Dr. Thomas Anna

The course introduce students to the principles underlying the electrical measurement of some of the most important physiological electrical signals used in routine critical care and provide students with a basic understanding of the nature of the electrical environment within which measurement of these signals must be made, with particular reference to electrical interference and the effect of electrodes.

Course content:

  • The origins and character of commonly used physiological parameters: ECG, EEG, EOG
  • Electrodes and the electrode/tissue interface: ionic current flow and electrolytes; electrical equivalent circuits of electrodes
  • The electrical environment in physiological measurement: common mode interference; amplifier and patient protection systems and their effect on measurement; effect of electrode imbalance.

Recommended readings:

  • Webster, John G. (edit.): "Medical Instrumentation, Application and Design"; 3rd edition 1998; John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Medical Imaging

Liz Parvin

Medical Imaging is an essential tool of modern medicine. This short course aims to explain the physics behind the main imaging modalities in current use: X-rays and CT, Ultrasound, radionuclide imaging and MRI. By the end of the course the student should have an understanding of the basics of image acquisition for each modality. The advantages and disadvantages of each method will also be discussed, along with safety considerations.